Glenohumeral Joint Instability most commonly occurs when the shoulder’s ball-and-socket joint is compromised by traumatic injury to the ligaments, rotator cuff, capsule or labrum that work together to keep the humeral head properly centered in the glenoid. A Bankart Lesion involves damage to the attachment of the labrum to the glenoid, with or without a bony avulsion. A Labral Tear occurs when the donut-shaped cartilage encircling the glenoid surface is torn within its substance, or from the glenoid, with or without the biceps tendon anchor point.
Often the result of landing on the arm during high-energy falls in such sports as football or skiing, Glenohumeral Joint Instability, if unaddressed, can lead to recurrent shoulder dislocations. Painful partial dislocations, called subluxations, are a form of microinstability that can lead to pain, tendinitis and further damaging of ligaments and cartilage.
Arthroscopic surgical ligament repair and post-operative physical therapy normally serve to resolve these conditions.